A world with multiple platforms formed in parallel will be more diverse than a world with only a single platform. The free movement of people, globalisation problems goods, money, and information has promoted greater concentration of economic activities in specific regions of the globe. The US north-eastern parallelogram and the European Blue Banana represent the most notable agglomerations of creative industries. Wuhan is another example, as one of the main manufacturing hubs of China.
Migrant careworkers often must leave their own children behind in their home countries to be cared for by even poorer careworkers or family members who may already have care-giving responsibilities or be engaged with paid labor. In wealthy countries, the entry of women into the paid workforce, without corresponding increases in public provisions for childcare or the redistribution of caring responsibilities between genders, has created a high demand for paid domestic labor. In poor countries, the supply of domestic labor has been stimulated by a scarcity of well-paying jobs and in many cases, a growing reliance on remittances. Cuts in public services in southern countries have also encouraged women to migrate as a means for earning the income they need to pay for private services for their children, such as healthcare and education . In contrast to this state-centric model, political globalization must be understood as polycentric, that is, as involving non-state institutions that exercise political power from both “above” and “below” the state . In addition to holding states accountable for adhering to mutually agreed upon norms and standards, global institutions often set the agendas that determine which issues receive international attention.
- Specific policies criticised by Stiglitz include fiscal austerity, high interest rates, trade liberalization, and the liberalization of capital markets and insistence on the privatization of state assets.
- On the basis of household survey data collected by different agencies, the World Bank estimates the fraction of the population in developing countries that falls below the 1-a-day poverty line –an admittedly crude but internationally comparable level.
- Consisting of over 400 entries, coverage includes key cultural, ecological, economic, geographical, historical, political, psychological and social aspects of globalization.
- It is believed that a new virus can spread in less than 14 days all over the world, given the current situation of open global accesses.
- Others, like Thomas Friedman, believe that globalization can bring people together and make everyone richer without getting rid of local cultures.
With the chance to expand its global outreach, globalization is playing an important role. These shared-phone programs are often funded by businesses like Germany’s Vodafone or Britain’s Masbabi, which hope to gain market share in the region. Phone giant Nokia points out that there are 4 billion mobile phone users worldwide—that’s more than twice as many people as have bank accounts—meaning there is ripe opportunity to connect banking companies with people who need their services . Other programs are funded by business organizations that seek to help peripheral nations with tools for innovation and entrepreneurship. If it does create a backlash, one reason is the standard Bolshevik explanation — the I.M.F. really is controlled by the epicenter of international capital.
Rodrik argues that the countries in the study may have begun to trade more because they had grown and gotten richer, not the other way around. China and India, he points out, began trade reforms about 10 years after they began high growth. The strategy, which became known as import substitution, produced high growth — for a while. Latin American governments made their consumers buy inferior and expensive products — remember the Brazilian computer of the 1970’s?
The agenda is to formulate different rules and prescribes new paradigms based on the primacy of markets in all walks of life. The net result of placing markets as the primary agent of all human endeavours is that today we are witnessing a world where‐economy is building castles in air; politics is suffering from cognitive freeze; culture is experiencing shock and military is in a state of stupor. Many economists argue that for trade to make a country better off, the government of that country may have to redistribute wealth and income to some extent, so that the winners from the policy of opening the economy share their gains with the losers. Of course, the phrase to some extent still leaves room for plenty of disagreement. Nevertheless, certain programs stir fairly little controversy, such as assistance programs to help workers cope with job losses and get retrained and redeployed. Scholarships allowing poor parents to send their children to school have proved to be more effective at reducing child labor than banning imports of products.